In-Text Citation APA 7 Example: A Comprehensive Guide
In academic writing, citing sources is crucial to give credit to the original authors and avoid plagiarism. The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely used in various disciplines, and it provides specific guidelines for in-text citations. This article will explain what in-text citations are, how to use them in APA 7 format, provide examples, and offer solutions to common issues.
What Do You Mean by In-Text Citation?
In-text citations are references to sources within the body of your text. They help readers identify the original source of the information you have used and allow them to locate the complete reference in the reference list. In-text citations are typically brief, consisting of the author’s last name and the publication year.
How to Use In-Text Citations in APA 7 Format?
In APA 7 format, there are different ways to incorporate in-text citations depending on the type of source and the nature of the citation. Here are some common examples:
1. Direct Quotations
If you directly quote a source, you must include the author’s last name, the publication year, and the page number where the quote can be found. For example:
According to Smith (2020), ‘The findings suggest a significant impact on climate change’ (p. 45).
When you rephrase someone else’s ideas in your own words, you still need to give credit to the original author. Include the author’s last name and the publication year. For example:
Smith (2020) found that climate change has a significant impact.
3. Multiple Authors
If a source has two authors, include both last names separated by an ampersand (&). For example:
(Smith & Johnson, 2020)
If a source has three or more authors, include the first author’s last name followed by et al. For example:
(Smith et al., 2020)
What is Known About In-Text Citations in APA 7?
APA 7 format introduced several changes in the guidelines for in-text citations compared to the previous version, APA 6. Some notable updates include:
1. Use of et al.
APA 7 allows the use of et al. for in-text citations with three or more authors, while APA 6 required it for sources with six or more authors.
2. Group or Organization as Author
If the author of a source is a group or organization, spell out the full name in the first in-text citation, followed by the abbreviation for subsequent citations. For example:
(National Institute of Health [NIH], 2020)
3. Page Numbers for Direct Quotations from Online Sources
In APA 7, page numbers are not required for paraphrased information from online sources. However, direct quotations still require page numbers if available.
Solution to Common Issues
While using in-text citations in APA 7, you may encounter some common issues. Here are solutions to address them:
1. Missing Page Numbers
If the source lacks page numbers, such as some online articles, omit the page number in the in-text citation.
2. Multiple Sources
If you are citing multiple sources in one sentence, list them in alphabetical order and separate them with semicolons. For example:
(Smith, 2020; Johnson, 2019)
3. Secondary Sources
If you need to cite a source that you found in another source, use the phrase as cited in before the secondary source in the in-text citation. For example:
(Smith, as cited in Johnson, 2020)
In-text citations are essential in APA 7 format to acknowledge the work of others and maintain academic integrity. By following the guidelines and examples provided in this article, you can ensure proper citation practices in your academic writing. Remember to always consult the official APA manual for specific rules and further guidance.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
1. Is it mandatory to include page numbers in in-text citations?
For direct quotations, it is necessary to include page numbers, but for paraphrased information, page numbers are optional.
2. How do I format in-text citations for sources with no author?
If a source has no individual author, use the title or the first few words of the title in the in-text citation.
3. Can I use footnotes instead of in-text citations in APA 7 format?
No, APA 7 format primarily relies on in-text citations. Footnotes are not commonly used in APA style, except for specific circumstances.
4. Are there any other changes in APA 7 format regarding in-text citations?
APA 7 introduced some updates to in-text citation guidelines, such as the use of et al. for three or more authors and new rules for citing group or organization authors.
5. What should I do if I cannot find a publication year for a source?
If a publication year is not available, use n.d. (no date) in the in-text citation and exclude it from the reference list entry.