APA In-Text Citation Without Page Numbers: Example, Explanation, and Solution
When writing academic papers or conducting research, it is important to give credit to the sources you have used. The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely used in the social sciences, and it provides guidelines for citing sources within the text of a document. However, what do you do when you want to cite a source that does not have page numbers? In this article, we will explore the concept of APA in-text citation without page numbers, provide an example, and offer a solution to this common issue.
What Do You Mean by APA In-Text Citation Without Page Numbers?
In APA style, in-text citations are used to acknowledge the sources of information you have used in your paper. When citing a source with page numbers, you typically include the author’s last name, publication year, and the page number(s) where the information can be found. However, there are cases where the source you are citing does not have page numbers. This can occur when citing sources such as websites or electronic articles where the content is not divided into specific pages.
How to Handle APA In-Text Citations Without Page Numbers?
When faced with the challenge of APA in-text citations without page numbers, there are different approaches you can take. The method you choose depends on whether the source has headings or other ways of identifying the location of the information.
1. Citing a Quotation
If you are directly quoting from a source without page numbers, you can use other identifying information such as paragraph numbers, section headings, or timestamps. Include this information in your in-text citation, preceded by the abbreviation para. for paragraph, sec. for section, or timestamp for electronic sources.
The results were inconclusive (Smith, 2019, para. 5).
2. Citing a Paraphrase or Summary
When paraphrasing or summarizing information from a source without page numbers, you can still provide an in-text citation by using other identifying information. Use the author’s last name and the year of publication, as you would with a standard APA citation.
According to Smith (2019), the results were inconclusive.
What is Known About APA In-Text Citation Without Page Numbers?
The issue of APA in-text citation without page numbers has been addressed in the APA Publication Manual (7th edition). The manual provides guidelines on how to handle different scenarios when citing sources without page numbers. It emphasizes the importance of providing enough information for readers to locate the cited information themselves, even in the absence of page numbers.
The APA Publication Manual suggests using other ways to identify the location of the information, such as paragraph numbers, section headings, or timestamps. This ensures that readers can refer to the same section of the source you are citing and verify the information for themselves.
Solution for APA In-Text Citation Without Page Numbers
To solve the problem of APA in-text citation without page numbers, follow these steps:
1. Identify Alternative Identifying Information
When citing a source without page numbers, look for other identifying information that can help readers locate the specific information you are referring to. This could include paragraph numbers, section headings, or timestamps.
2. Include the Identifying Information in the In-Text Citation
When citing a quotation, include the identifying information in the in-text citation, preceded by the appropriate abbreviation. For paraphrases or summaries, use the author’s last name and the year of publication.
3. Provide Additional Context
In addition to the in-text citation, provide enough context or information in the text to help readers understand the source and its location. This could include mentioning the section or paragraph you are referring to, or providing a brief description of the content.
4. Consistency is Key
Ensure that you consistently apply the chosen method of citation throughout your paper. This will help maintain clarity and consistency for your readers.
In this article, we have explored the concept of APA in-text citation without page numbers. We have learned that when faced with this situation, it is essential to identify alternative identifying information such as paragraph numbers, section headings, or timestamps. By including this information in the in-text citation and providing additional context, you can ensure that readers can locate the cited information themselves. Remember to be consistent in your citation method throughout the paper to maintain clarity and adherence to APA guidelines.
1. Can I use the abbreviation p. for page instead of para. for paragraph in APA in-text citations without page numbers?
No, in APA style, the abbreviation p. is reserved specifically for page numbers. When citing sources without page numbers, use para. for paragraph numbers, sec. for section headings, or timestamp for electronic sources.
2. What if the source I am citing does not have any alternative identifying information?
If the source you are citing does not have any alternative identifying information, it is best to provide as much context as possible in the text of your paper. Describe the content you are referring to in detail and provide enough information for readers to understand and locate the source.
3. Can I use the same method for citing sources in other citation styles?
The method described in this article specifically pertains to APA style. Other citation styles may have different guidelines for citing sources without page numbers. It is essential to consult the specific guidelines of the citation style you are using.
4. Are there any exceptions to the use of alternative identifying information in APA in-text citations?
While alternative identifying information is generally used in APA in-text citations without page numbers, there may be exceptions. For example, if you are citing a source that uses no headers or indications of location, you may need to provide the full URL or another reference point to help readers locate the information.
5. How can I ensure that my APA in-text citations without page numbers are accurate?
To ensure the accuracy of your APA in-text citations without page numbers, double-check the source you are citing for any available alternative identifying information. If you are uncertain, consult the APA Publication Manual or seek guidance from your instructor or a librarian.