APA In-Text Citations: A Comprehensive Guide

APA In-Text Citations Example: A Comprehensive Guide

What do you mean by APA in-text citations?

APA Style th Edition: In-Text Citations, Quotations, and Plagiarism
APA Style th Edition: In-Text Citations, Quotations, and Plagiarism

APA in-text citations are a specific format used to acknowledge and give credit to the original source of information used in academic writing. These citations are inserted within the text of the document, allowing readers to easily locate the corresponding complete reference in the APA reference list at the end of the document. APA in-text citations are essential for ensuring academic integrity and avoiding plagiarism.

How to use APA in-text citations?

What Are In-Text Citations APA? Top  Tips And Tricks
What Are In-Text Citations APA? Top Tips And Tricks

Using APA in-text citations involves following a specific format that includes the author’s last name and the year of publication. When citing a direct quote, you should also include the page number. The citation is typically placed within parentheses at the end of the sentence or after the information being cited. For example:

According to Johnson (2019), ‘APA in-text citations are vital for academic writing’ (p. 25).

In-Text Citations: The Basics - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University
In-Text Citations: The Basics – Purdue OWL® – Purdue University

If the author’s name is mentioned within the sentence, you only need to include the year and page number in parentheses. For example:

Johnson (2019) states that APA in-text citations are vital for academic writing (p. 25).

What is known about APA in-text citations?

APA in-text citations are widely recognized and accepted within the academic community, especially in fields such as psychology, sociology, and education. They provide a standardized method for citing sources, making it easier for readers to locate and validate the information used in a document. APA in-text citations also demonstrate respect for intellectual property and contribute to the overall credibility of an academic paper.

Solution: APA in-text citation example

To better understand how to use APA in-text citations, consider the following example:

Scholars have debated the impact of climate change on global food production (Smith, 2018). A recent study found that rising temperatures are causing crop yields to decline (Johnson, 2020). However, some researchers argue that other factors, such as pests and soil degradation, may be equally responsible for the decrease in food production (Brown, 2019; White, 2021).

In this example, Smith, Johnson, Brown, and White are the authors of the respective studies cited. The years of publication are included to help readers locate the complete references in the APA reference list.

Additional Information on APA in-text citations:

1. Multiple Authors:

When citing a source with multiple authors, use & instead of and between the last two authors’ names. For example: (Smith, Johnson, & Brown, 2019).

2. No Author:

If a source does not have an identified author, use the title of the article or book in place of the author’s name. For example: (Climate Change and Food Security, 2020).

3. Multiple Citations:

If you need to cite multiple sources within the same sentence, separate them with a semicolon. For example: (Smith, 2018; Johnson, 2020; Brown, 2019).

4. Electronic Sources:

When citing electronic sources like websites or online articles, include the author’s name (if available) or the organization responsible for the content, followed by the year of publication and, if applicable, the paragraph number. For example: (Smith, 2021, para. 5).

5. Indirect Sources:

If you are citing a source that was cited within another source, use the phrase as cited in followed by the name of the original author and the publication year of the source you are directly citing. For example: (Johnson, as cited in Smith, 2019).


APA in-text citations play a crucial role in academic writing by giving credit to the original sources of information and maintaining integrity. By following the guidelines and using the examples provided, you can ensure that your citations are accurate, consistent, and meet the requirements of the APA style. Properly formatted in-text citations enhance the credibility of your work and allow readers to easily locate and verify your sources.


1. Why are APA in-text citations important?

APA in-text citations are important because they give credit to the original authors, maintain academic integrity, and allow readers to locate the cited sources.

2. Can I use APA in-text citations in other citation styles?

No, APA in-text citations are specific to the APA style and should not be used in other citation styles such as MLA or Chicago.

3. How do I format an APA in-text citation for a paraphrase?

For a paraphrase, include the author’s last name and the year of publication. No page number is necessary. Example: (Smith, 2018).

4. What should I do if I cannot find the publication date for a source?

If the publication date is unavailable, use n.d. (no date) in place of the year. Example: (Smith, n.d.).

5. Are APA in-text citations necessary for every sentence?

No, APA in-text citations are only necessary when you directly quote or paraphrase information from a source. However, it is good practice to provide citations for any borrowed ideas or data to avoid plagiarism.